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下の英文を翻訳して欲しいです。お願いします。

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ID非公開さん

2018/4/2010:42:14

下の英文を翻訳して欲しいです。お願いします。

The Romans invaded southern Britain in 43 A. D., and over many decades expanded their influence north and west. In the year 122, during the reign of the emperor Hadrian they began construction of a wall right across Britain from what is now Carlisle in the west to Wallsend in the east. Hadrian seems to have wanted to set general limits on the expansion of the Roman Empire, and the wall was the way he did so in Britain. At the same time it may have been a way of controlling the movement of people and goods, rather than being simply to keep the northern inhabitants of Britain, the Picts out. In the west the wall is close to the present border between England and Scotland, though not in the east, where it is over 100km from the border.

The Romans abandoned Britain in 410, and the wall fell into disuse. Much of it was dismantled over the centuries, for use as building material for farms, churches and roads. Nonetheless much remains, including the ruins of a number of Roman towns and forts attached to the wall. It is possible to walk its whole length, and it is a very popular tourist attraction. On the other hand although it is a UNESCO World Heritage site, it is certainly nothing like as impressive as China's Great Wall though the two are comparable in purpose.


The Romans did not conquer the whole of Britain. Despite their best efforts they never controlled what are now Scotland and Northumberland, beyond the wall, In most of England, and to a lesser extent Wales, however, reminders of the Romans are everywhere. One is never far from a villa or temple or mosaic. A straight road is quite probably built on a Roman one.
Many town names derive from the Latin word castrum fort, including Manchester, Worcester and Lancaster; other towns were Roman foundations, including London and York.

While Britain had an empire, the men who controlled it were largely educated at public school where Latin was taught, and the Romans were seen as people to emulate. Like us, these men thought, the Romans were fine engineers, had an irresistible army, and adopted policies that made them able to rule successfully over disparate peoples for a long time, bringing prosperity to much of the known world. In short they thought the British were superior to the people they conquered, as were the Romans. One more similarity is that the Romans did not have much time for apparently useless things like philosophy and music, leaving those to the Greeks. The British left them to the continental Europeans.

Now that imperialism is out of fashion other aspects of the Romans have been stressed, including near-genocidal brutality. This has led to considerable ambivalence, with awareness that the Romans were violent conquerors, but also that they brought many benefits. In the British film The Life of Brian set in Roman Palestine, there is an argument about what good the Romans have brought, culminating in : “All right, but apart from the sanitation, medicine, education, wine, public order, irrigation, roads, the fresh water system and public health, what have the Romans ever done for us? Ironically, in disputing the benefits of Roman rule, the speaker has demon- strated them.


Taking its title from this famous scene the BBC programme What The Romans Did For Us explained many of the benefits the Romans brought. Against that we should mention another BBC programme, Barbarians, which stressed the civilization of those the Romans called barbarians, including the Celts.

The Romans left Britain in the face of widespread attacks by these "barbarians', and the following centuries are known as the Dark Ages, a period many British people grew up to regard as a great step backward from Roman achievements. Yet the invaders were Anglo-saxons who gave their name to the country (and several counties) and the language.

補足Roman influence continued indirectly through the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, and the related prestige of Latin as the language of scholarship. Only quite recently has Latin ceased to be part of a "good' education. On the other hand English law, in contrast to that of many European countries (including Scotland), is not founded on Roman law, having derived largely from Anglo-Saxon and Norman practice.

So opinions of the Romans in Britain are mixed. Recent historical approaches have laid some stress on the interaction and cooperation between the Romans themselves and Romanized Britons, and on how many Britons did well under peaceful Roman rule. This would seem to suit the modern British, as we can admire the Romans without feeling inferior, even at a remove of over 1600 years. Hadrian's Wall is the most popular tourist attraction in northern England and the most visible legacy of a long and important part of the history of Britain.

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kei********さん

2018/4/2023:28:25

ローマ人は南アフリカ共和国を侵略し、43年にD.D.、そして何十年にもわたり、彼らの影響力を北と西に広げた。 122年、ハドリアヌス天皇の治世中に、彼らは西側のカーライル(Carlisle)から東側のウォールセンド(Wallsend)に至るまで、イギリスを横断して壁を建設し始めました。ハドリアヌスはローマ帝国の拡大に一般的な限界を設けたいと思っていたようだが、その壁は英国のようだった。それと同時に、英国の北部の住民であるピクト族を単に保つのではなく、人や物資の移動を制御する方法だったかもしれません。西側では、イギリスとスコットランドの現在の国境に近い国ですが、国境から100km以上離れた東にはありません。

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