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In approaching our subject it will be best, without attempting to shorten the...

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ID非公開さん

2019/7/2307:00:04

In approaching our subject it will be best, without attempting to shorten the path by referring to famous theories the drama, to start directly from the facts, and to collect from them gradually an id

ea of Shakespearean Tragedy. And first, to begin from the outside, such a tragedy brings before us a considerable number of persons many more than the persons in a Greek play, unless the members of the Chorus are reckoned among them; but it is pre-eminently the story of one person, the hero, or at most two, the 'hero and heroine. Moreover, it is only in the love-tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Antony and Cleopatra, that the heroine is as much the centre of the action as the hero. The rest. including Macbeth, are single stars. So that, having noticed the peculiarity of these two dramas, we may henceforth, for the sake of brevity, ignore , and may speak of the tragic story sbeing concerned primarily with one person. The story, next, leads up , and includes, the death of the hero. On the one hand whatever may be true of tragedy elsewhere, no play at the end of which the hero remains alive is, in the full Shakespearean sense, a tragedy: and we no longer class Troilus and Cressida or Cymbeline as such, as did the editors of the Folio. On the other hand, the story depicts also the troubled part of the hero's life which precedes and leads up to his death : and an instantaneous death occurring by 'accident' in the midst of prosperity would not suffice for it. It is, in fact, essentially a tale f suffering and calamity conducting to death. 3 The suffering and calamity are. moreover, exceptional. They befall a conspicuous person. They are themselves of some striking kind. They are also, as rule, unexpected, and contrasted with previous happiness or glory. to A tale, for example, of a man slowly worn to death by disease, poverty, little cares, sordid vices, petty persecutions, however piteous or dreadful it might be, would not be tragic in the Shakespearean sense. 4. Such exceptional suffering and calamity, then, affecting the hero, and-we must now add- generally extending far and wide beyond him. so as to make the whole scene a scene of woe, are an essential ingredient in tragedy and a chief source of the tragic emotions, and especially of pity. But the proportions of this ingredient, and the direction taken by tragic pity, will naturally vary greatly. Pity, for example, has a much larger part in King Lear than in Macbeth, and is directed in the one case chiefly to the hero, in the other chiefly to minor characters 5. Let us now pause for a moment on the ideas we have far reached. They would more than suffice to describe the whole tragic fact as it presented itself to the mediaeval mind. To the mediaeval mind a tragedy meant a narrative rather than a play, and s notion of the matter of this narrative may readily be gathered from Dante
or, still better, from Chaucer. Chaucer's Monk's Tale is a series of what he calls 'tragedies' ; and this means in fact a series of tales de Casibus Illustrium Virorum,-stories of the Falls of Illustrious Men, such as Lucifer, Adam, Hercules and Nebuchadnezzar. And the Monk ends the tale of Croesus thus : Hanged, then, was Croesus, this tremendous king; His royal scepter was of no avail. Tragedy is no other kind of thing Nor tunes her song save only to bewail How Fortune, even fickle, will assail With sudden stroke the kingdoms of the proud And when men trust in here she then will fail And cover her bright face as with a cloud *NB tme uoti
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補足6 A total reverse of fortune, coming unawares upon a man who 'stood in high degree,' happy and apparently secure,-such was the tragic fact to the mediaeval mind. It appealed strongly to common human sympathy and pity : it startled also another feeling, that of fear. It frightened men and awed them. It made them feel that man is blind and helpless, the plaything of an inscrutable power, called by the name of Fortune or some other name,-a power which appears to smile on him for a little, and then on a sudden strikes him down in his pride. 7 Shakespeare's idea of the tragic fact is larger than this idea and goes beyond it ; but it includes it, and it is worth while to observe the identity of the two in a certain point which is often ignored. . .
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2019/7/2820:21:44

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