英語で論文書いてみました(pt.2)。スタンフォード大学に出すやつです。感想と直すべきところを教えてください、お願いします。 （）の中はエビデンスなので気にしないでください。 【Ambiguity and Clarity: Cultural Differences between Japan and the U.S.】 In 1976, anthropologist Edward T. Hall defined those cultures in which communication tends to be indirect, ambiguous and nonverbal as high-context, and those in which direct, clear, and simple communication is preferred as low-context (Williams). Furthermore, Erin Meyer in her book The Culture Map, defined Japan as the most high-context country, while U.S. as the most low-context country so they are the opposite in terms of language and communication (Lubin), just like the “moon” and the “sun”. In 2017, the U.S. Foreign Services Institute ranked Japanese as “the most difficult language for native English speakers” to learn (“The most difficult language…”). In fact, the English alphabet has only 26 letters, while Japanese has about 2,000 commonly used Chinese characters (kanji) in addition to the 46 letters that hiragana and katakana each have. Moreover, unlike Chinese, kanji are not simplified and they have two different readings, on-yomi and kun-yomi. Japanese also has polite, humble, and respectful speech, which makes it more complicated, and it often omits the subject in the sentence, which is quite unusual in English (“Why is Japanese…”). Complexity and simplicity in language creates a mixture of ambiguity and clarity among people when communicating. There is a famous Japanese proverb “Hear one, understand ten”, which means that people should use their imagination to think about various interpretations for one piece of information (Tsunekawa). Therefore, it is important to sense meaning through the atmosphere, or as said in Japanese “Kuuki wo yomu”, in other words, “Read between the lines” (Kagawa 68). For example, it is difficult to say “no” for Japanese people when refusing something, since it is considered rude to say it directly.